Education or Indoctrination?
Analysis of Textbooks in Alabama

Appendix B

Glossary Definitions of "Evolution"


A. Basic High School Biology Texts

"evolution genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in populations of organisms with the passage of time, often resulting in increased adaptation of organisms to the prevailing environment" (Biology, Fourth Edition, Sylvia Mader, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Times Mirror, 1993, p. G-6)

"evolution: process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms; any change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population" (Biology, Miller & Levine, Prentice Hall, 1995, p. R29)

"Evolution (ev uh LEW shun): a change in the heredity features of a group of organisms over time" (Biology An Everyday Experience, Kasskel, Hummer, Daniel, Glencoe (MacMillan/McGraw-Hill, 1995, p. 722)

"evolution: the change in living organisms over time." (Biology Living Systems, Raymond Oram, Glencoe, 1994, p. 936)

"evolution change in the genetic makeup of a population or species over time" (Biology Principles and Explorations, Johnson & Raven, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1996, p. 1040)

"evolution: change in the gene pool of a population in response to various stimuli exhibited by a species over time." (Biology The Dynamics Of Life, Biggs, Kapicka, Lundgren, Glencoe (MacMillan/McGraw-Hill, 1995, p. 1155)

"evolution (ehv uh LOO shuhn): genetic change in a species over time" (Biology, Visualizing Life, Johnson, Holt Rinehart Winston, 1994, p. 833)


B. Advanced Biology

"evolution 1. Descent of modern species of organisms from somewhat different ancestral species. 2. Change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation. 3. Production and release of gas as a result of chemical reactions." (Biology, Fourth Edition, Arms & Camp, Saunders College Publishing, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1995, p. G-7)

"evolution All the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today." (Biology, Campbell, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Addison-Wesley, 1993, p. G-11)

"evolution, biological [L. evolution, act of unrolling] Change within a line of descent over time. A population is evolving when some forms of a trait are becoming more or less common, relative to the other kinds of traits. The shifts are evidence of changes in the relative abundances of alleles for that trait, as brought about by mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow." (Biology Concepts And Applications, Cecie Star, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1994)

"evolution All the changes that transform life on Earth, leading to the diversity of organisms. Evolution results from genetic change and consequent phenotypic change in a population or species over generations." (Biology Concepts & Connections, Campbell, Mitchell, Reece, Benjamin Cummings, Addison-Wesley, 1994, p. 801)

"evolution, biological [L. evolution, act of unrolling] Change within a line of descent over time. A population is evolving when some forms of a trait are becoming more or less common, relative to the other kinds of traits. The shifts are evidence of changes in the relative abundances of alleles for that trait, as brought about by mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow." (Biology The Unity And Diversity Of Life, Seventh Edition, Starr and Taggart, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1995)


C. Middle School Integrated and Coordinated Science, and Traditional Life Science

"evolution slow changes in living organisms" (Life Science, Holt Rinehart Winston, 1994, p. 589)

"Evolution: Scientists use the word evolution to describe changes that occur in systems over long periods of time. Bicycles and restaurants are examples of technological systems that have evolved over many decades. Horses and the circulatory systems of animals are examples of living systems that have evolved over many millions of years." (Middle School Science And Technology, BSCS, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1994, Investigating Systems and Change, p. 446)

"evolution: change in species over time" (Prentice Hall Science - Evolution Change Over Time, Prentice Hall, 1993, p. 114 F)

"evolution The concept originated by Charles Darwin, explaining that organisms are the products of historical change and that new species gradually developed from previous ones." (Science Insights, Addison Wesley, 1996, p. 635)


D. Elementary Science

"evolution process that results in changes in the genetic makeup of species over time." (Discover the Wonder, Scott, Foresman and Company, 1996, Grade 6, p. 28)

"evolution The concept that all living things are descended from earlier forms of life, with new species developing over time. (D58) According to the theory of evolution, the plants and animals alive today descended from organisms that lived millions of years ago. (Discovery Works, Silver Burdett Ginn, Inc., 1996, Grade 6, p. H25)

"Scientists have concluded that living species are related to and descended from species that lived in the past. The development of new species from earlier species is called evolution. The fossil record is one of the most important pieces of evidence that supports the idea that species evolve." (D58) "evolution The concept originated by Charles Darwin, explaining that organisms are the products of historical change and that new species gradually developed from previous ones." (Exploring Living Things, p.635)

"evolution A change in a living population over time." (Science Insights, Addison Wesley, 1996, Exploring Earth and Space, p. 630)

"evolution: ongoing process of change in the inherited features of a population of organisms over time; evolutionary evidence can be drawn from such sources as fossil remains, the chemical structure of organisms, and the physical structure of cells." (Science Interactions Course 3, Glencoe, 1995, p. 698)


E. Environmental Science

"evolution change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to the next" (Environmental Science, Arms, Karen, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1996, p. 417)

"evolution A gradual change in a population of organisms over time" (Environmental Science Ecology and Human Impact, Bernstien, Winkler, Zierdt-Warshaw, Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1996, p. 434)


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Copyright ©1995 Norris Anderson. All rights reserved. International copyright secured.
File Date: 12.22.95